Analysis of Volatile and Semivolatile Organic Compounds in Municipal Wastewater Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography
Abstract:The aim of this work was to develop a simple and fast analytical method for the determination of a wide range of organic compounds (volatile and semivolatile compounds) in municipal wastewater. The headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography (with mass spectroscopy) was used for determination of the organic compounds. In this study, 39 organic compounds were determined, including 3 sulfur compounds, 28 substituted benzenes, and 8 substituted phenols. The extraction parameters, such as types of SPME fiber, extraction temperature, extraction time, desorption time, salt effect, and magnetic stirring, were investigated. The method had very good repeatability, because the relative standard deviations ranged from 0.5 to 12%. The detection limit of each compound was at or below the microgram-per-liter level. This method was applied for determination of the organic compounds in raw wastewater, primary effluent, secondary effluent, and chlorinated secondary effluent samples from the Chania Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (Crete, Greece).
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: August 1, 2007
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