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Analysis of Volatile and Semivolatile Organic Compounds in Municipal Wastewater Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography

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The aim of this work was to develop a simple and fast analytical method for the determination of a wide range of organic compounds (volatile and semivolatile compounds) in municipal wastewater. The headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography (with mass spectroscopy) was used for determination of the organic compounds. In this study, 39 organic compounds were determined, including 3 sulfur compounds, 28 substituted benzenes, and 8 substituted phenols. The extraction parameters, such as types of SPME fiber, extraction temperature, extraction time, desorption time, salt effect, and magnetic stirring, were investigated. The method had very good repeatability, because the relative standard deviations ranged from 0.5 to 12%. The detection limit of each compound was at or below the microgram-per-liter level. This method was applied for determination of the organic compounds in raw wastewater, primary effluent, secondary effluent, and chlorinated secondary effluent samples from the Chania Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (Crete, Greece).

Keywords: gas chromatography; organic compounds; semivolatile; solid-phase microextraction; volatile; wastewater

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: August 1, 2007

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  • Water Environment Research® (WER®) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year.

    Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
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