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Treatment of Urban Runoff at Lake Tahoe: Low-Intensity Chemical Dosing

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A systematic investigation of the effect of coagulant type and dose and temperature, mixing, and water quality on subsequent charge neutralization and removal of phosphorus and fine particles from urban and/or stormwater runoff entering Lake Tahoe (Sierra Nevada mountains, western United States) was conducted. Dosing based on streaming current values resulted in turbidities of less than 10.9 ± 0.35 NTU and filterable and total phosphorus concentrations of less than 9.83 ± 0.54 and 25.6 ± 5.71 μg/L, respectively. Inadequate slow mixing could be partially compensated for by increased settling time; however, such quiescent conditions are difficult to obtain in natural systems. For prehydrolyzed forms of aluminum, high intensity rapid mixing was counterproductive. Several classes of coagulants responded robustly to water quality and temperature changes. However, polyaluminum chlorides modified with silica or sulfate, with low to medium basicity, were consistently the best performers in these tests, in terms of simultaneously removing phosphorus and fine particles under a wide range of operating conditions with low doses.
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Keywords: charge titration; fine particles; low-dose coagulation; phosphorus; stormwater; turbidity

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2006-12-01

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    Water Environment Research (WER) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year.

    Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
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