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Enhanced In Situ Bioremediation of Phenol in Bioestimulated Unsaturated and Saturated Sand-Bed Columns

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Biodegradation of phenol was observed in unsaturated sand-bed columns, in which phenol concentration declined from 298 mg phenol/kg sand to less than 1 mg/kg after 21 days. In saturated sand-bed columns, phenol concentration declined from 230 mg phenol/kg to less than 1 mg/kg after 37 days. Pseudo-first-order phenol biodegradation rates were in the range 0.25 days −1 ( R 2 = 0.9) to 0.66 days −1 ( R 2 = 0.85) and 0.08 days −1 ( R 2 = 0.68) to 0.14 days −1 ( R 2 = 0.84) in the unsaturated and saturated sand-bed columns, respectively. Unsaturated columns presented a higher biomass density (21.5 mg/g) in the sand-bed and lower biomass concentration in the aqueous phase (3.5 NTU) compared with the saturated columns (6.4 mg/g and 14.0 NTU). A high concentration of phenol releases in the sand-bed columns resulted in an initial inhibition of microbial activity and destabilization of the attached biomass.

Keywords: aquifer; bioestimulation; bioremediation; phenol; sand

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: December 1, 2006

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  • Water Environment Research® (WER®) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year.

    Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
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