Skip to main content

Development of a Three-Stage System for Wastewater Toxicity Monitoring: A Design and Feasibility Study

Buy Article:

$30.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)


A three-stage system was developed to automate a batchwise toxicity testing protocol designed for assessing wastewater toxicity to activated sludge. The three-stage system used the luminescent bacterium Shk1. The three stages were cell storage, cell activation, and continuous toxicity testing. Shk1 cells were stored in a bioreactor at 4°C when the system was not in use and activated in another bioreactor for use in toxicity tests conducted in a continuous manner. The system could quickly be switched between the “off” and “on” modes, and operation of the system was easy. The stability of the system, in terms of cell density and bioluminescence in the storage and activation bioreactors, and the response of the activated cells to a metal and an organic toxicant were studied. The feasibility of the system design was demonstrated by simulating zinc toxicity episodes in synthetic wastewater. The needs for further modifications and improvements of the system were discussed.

Keywords: bioluminescent bacteria; toxicity; wastewater

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: September 1, 2006

More about this publication?
  • Water Environment Research® (WER®) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year.

    Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • Information for Advertisers
  • WEF Bookstore
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more