Effects of pH, Temperature, and Water Quality on Chloride Removal with Ultra-High Lime with Aluminum Process

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The ultra high-lime with aluminum process (UHLA) has the ability to remove sulfate and chloride in addition to other scale-forming materials from recycled cooling water. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that the UHLA process can achieve high chloride removal from recycled cooling water, and an equilibrium model was developed to describe chemical behavior during chloride removal. This paper describes the influence of pH, temperature, and initial chloride concentration on chloride removal by UHLA and identifies the precipitated solids formed during treatment. The optimum pH for maximum chloride removal efficiency was found to be 12 ± 0.2. Chloride removal efficiency was higher at a high initial chloride concentration than at a low initial chloride concentration with the chemical doses used. Solids formed during UHLA treatment were identified by x-ray diffraction as calcium chloroaluminate, tricalcium hydroxyaluminate, and tetracalcium hydroxyaluminate. This supports the assumption of the equilibrium model that these compounds are present and form a solid solution.

Keywords: aluminum; calcium chloroaluminate; chloride; cooling water; lime softening; pH; solid solution; water recycle

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2175/106143005X72821

Publication date: September 1, 2006

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  • Water Environment Research® (WER®) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year.

    Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
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