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Removal of Noro- and Enteroviruses, Giardia Cysts, Cryptosporidium Oocysts, and Fecal Indicators at Four Secondary Wastewater Treatment Plants in Sweden

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The aim of this study was to investigate variation in the occurrence and removal of enteroviruses, noroviruses, Giardia cysts, Cryptosporidium oocysts, and the most commonly used fecal indicators in four Swedish secondary wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Paired samples were taken from the inlet and outlet of each WWTP. (Oo)cysts and indicators were enumerated with standard methods and viruses with a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Giardia cysts and enteroviruses were constantly detected (mean numbers were 10 3.31 cysts and 10 4.44 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) units L −1, respectively). Oocysts were found in 5 out of 19 samples (mean number was 20 L −1). Noroviruses were found between November and February, with an average titer of 10 3.29 L −1. Mean cyst removal was 2.6 log, while noroviruses and enteroviruses were removed by 0.9 and 1.3 log, respectively. There was no correlation between the removals of pathogens and indicators ( p > 0.05). Coliphage removal resembled human viral removal better than did F-specific phage.

Keywords: Cryptosporidium oocyst; Giardia cysts; enteroviruses; fecal indicators; noroviruses; phages; removal; wastewater treatment

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: August 1, 2006

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  • Water Environment Research® (WER®) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year.

    Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
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