Skip to main content

Removal of Noro- and Enteroviruses, Giardia Cysts, Cryptosporidium Oocysts, and Fecal Indicators at Four Secondary Wastewater Treatment Plants in Sweden

Buy Article:

$30.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)

The aim of this study was to investigate variation in the occurrence and removal of enteroviruses, noroviruses, Giardia cysts, Cryptosporidium oocysts, and the most commonly used fecal indicators in four Swedish secondary wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Paired samples were taken from the inlet and outlet of each WWTP. (Oo)cysts and indicators were enumerated with standard methods and viruses with a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Giardia cysts and enteroviruses were constantly detected (mean numbers were 10 3.31 cysts and 10 4.44 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) units L −1, respectively). Oocysts were found in 5 out of 19 samples (mean number was 20 L −1). Noroviruses were found between November and February, with an average titer of 10 3.29 L −1. Mean cyst removal was 2.6 log, while noroviruses and enteroviruses were removed by 0.9 and 1.3 log, respectively. There was no correlation between the removals of pathogens and indicators ( p > 0.05). Coliphage removal resembled human viral removal better than did F-specific phage.
No Reference information available - sign in for access.
No Citation information available - sign in for access.
No Supplementary Data.
No Data/Media
No Metrics

Keywords: Cryptosporidium oocyst; Giardia cysts; enteroviruses; fecal indicators; noroviruses; phages; removal; wastewater treatment

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2006-08-01

More about this publication?
  • Water Environment Research (WER) is published monthly, including an annual Literature Review. A subscription to WER includes access to the latest content back to 1992, as well as access to fast track articles. An individual subscription is valid for 12 months from month of purchase.

    Water Environment Research (WER) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year.

    Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • Information for Advertisers
  • WEF Bookstore
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more