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Disinfection of Secondary Effluents Using Tin Oxide Anodes

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Direct current applied to a tin oxide anode submersed in water has the potential to generate hydroxyl radicals, a strong chemical oxidant. Tin oxide anode systems, which may represent a viable alternative disinfectant, were investigated for the disinfection of secondary effluents. Coliform bacteria in the effluent were effectively inactivated in a bench-scale tin oxide disinfection system. The number of anodes in the tin oxide disinfection system influenced the steady-state concentration of hydroxyl radicals and, consequently, the contact time necessary to achieve a specified dose. The life expectancy of the anodes was greater than 30 days and no appreciable loss of tin was observed over a 5-day period. A preliminary estimate of the capital and operating costs of a pilot- or full-scale tin oxide disinfection system designed to meet a discharge requirement of 23 most probable number/100 mL at a 3 785-m3/d (1-mgd) facility was comparable to UV and chlorination/dechlorination facilities. Based on this preliminary assessment, tin oxide disinfection systems are a promising alternative disinfectant for secondary effluents.

Keywords: disinfection; emerging technologies; hydroxyl radicals; tin oxide anodes; wastewater

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2006

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  • Water Environment Research® (WER®) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year.

    Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
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