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Disinfection of Secondary Effluents Using Tin Oxide Anodes

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Direct current applied to a tin oxide anode submersed in water has the potential to generate hydroxyl radicals, a strong chemical oxidant. Tin oxide anode systems, which may represent a viable alternative disinfectant, were investigated for the disinfection of secondary effluents. Coliform bacteria in the effluent were effectively inactivated in a bench-scale tin oxide disinfection system. The number of anodes in the tin oxide disinfection system influenced the steady-state concentration of hydroxyl radicals and, consequently, the contact time necessary to achieve a specified dose. The life expectancy of the anodes was greater than 30 days and no appreciable loss of tin was observed over a 5-day period. A preliminary estimate of the capital and operating costs of a pilot- or full-scale tin oxide disinfection system designed to meet a discharge requirement of 23 most probable number/100 mL at a 3 785-m3/d (1-mgd) facility was comparable to UV and chlorination/dechlorination facilities. Based on this preliminary assessment, tin oxide disinfection systems are a promising alternative disinfectant for secondary effluents.
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Keywords: disinfection; emerging technologies; hydroxyl radicals; tin oxide anodes; wastewater

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2006-01-01

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  • Water Environment Research (WER) is published monthly, including an annual Literature Review. A subscription to WER includes access to the latest content back to 1992, as well as access to fast track articles. An individual subscription is valid for 12 months from month of purchase.

    Water Environment Research (WER) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year.

    Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
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