Sources and Fate of Nitrosodimethylamine and its Precursors in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants
To assess the occurrence and fate of nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and its precursors in wastewater treatment plants, samples from wastewater treatment plants and industrial sources were analyzed for NDMA, total NDMA precursors, and dimethylamine (DMA). The median concentration of NDMA in untreated wastewater was approximately 80 ng/L, with maximum concentrations up to 790 ng/L presumably occuring because of sources unrelated to domestic wastewater. Concentrations of DMA in untreated wastewater ranged from approximately 50 to 120 μg/L and accounted for a majority of the NDMA precursors. The removal of NDMA during secondary biological treatment exhibited considerable variability, with overall removal ranging from 0 to 75%. In contrast, removal of NDMA precursors and DMA generally exceeded 70%. The median concentration of NDMA in secondary effluent before disinfection was 46 ng/L. Although DMA was removed during secondary treatment, other NDMA precursors in wastewater effluent will result in formation of additional NDMA upon disinfection with chloramines.
No Supplementary Data.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2005-01-01
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Water Environment Research (WER) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year. Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
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