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Virus Removal from Wastewater in a Multispecies Subsurface-Flow Constructed Wetland

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Virus removal was studied in a multispecies subsurface-flow constructed wetland. Tracer studies and a virus survival test were conducted using bromide and bacteriophage PRD1 that were simultaneously added into a 6-year-old gravel-filled wetland. The estimated dimensionless variance and the observed bromide breakthrough curve suggest a plug-flow reactor with some dispersion. Most of the PRD1 was removed during the first 4 days; however, the PRD1 background concentration was not reached by the end of the study. Average bacteriophage removal was 98.8%, whereas bromide mass recovery was 75%. The removal rate of PRD1 was estimated to be −1.17 d−1; in contrast, its inactivation rate in situ for a 12.4-day period was −0.16 d−1. Apparently, virus removal is governed by an initial irreversible attachment followed by a comparatively long inactivation period. This study suggests that a subsurface-flow wetland can decrease the virus load by approximately 99% with a 5.5-day detention time.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2003-05-01

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  • Water Environment Research (WER) is published monthly, including an annual Literature Review. A subscription to WER includes access to the latest content back to 1992, as well as access to fast track articles. An individual subscription is valid for 12 months from month of purchase.

    Water Environment Research (WER) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year.

    Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
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