Virus Removal from Wastewater in a Multispecies Subsurface-Flow Constructed Wetland
Abstract:Virus removal was studied in a multispecies subsurface-flow constructed wetland. Tracer studies and a virus survival test were conducted using bromide and bacteriophage PRD1 that were simultaneously added into a 6-year-old gravel-filled wetland. The estimated dimensionless variance and the observed bromide breakthrough curve suggest a plug-flow reactor with some dispersion. Most of the PRD1 was removed during the first 4 days; however, the PRD1 background concentration was not reached by the end of the study. Average bacteriophage removal was 98.8%, whereas bromide mass recovery was 75%. The removal rate of PRD1 was estimated to be −1.17 d−1; in contrast, its inactivation rate in situ for a 12.4-day period was −0.16 d−1. Apparently, virus removal is governed by an initial irreversible attachment followed by a comparatively long inactivation period. This study suggests that a subsurface-flow wetland can decrease the virus load by approximately 99% with a 5.5-day detention time.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: May 1, 2003
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- Water Environment Research® (WER®) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year. Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
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