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An Improved Filter Elution and Cell Culture Assay Procedure for Evaluating Public Groundwater Systems for Culturable Enteroviruses

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Abstract:

Large-scale virus studies of groundwater systems require practical and sensitive procedures for both sample processing and viral assay. Filter adsorption–elution procedures have traditionally been used to process large-volume water samples for viruses. In this study, five filter elution procedures using cartridge filters were evaluated for their effectiveness in processing samples. Of the five procedures tested, the third method, which incorporated two separate beef extract elutions (one being an overnight filter immersion in beef extract), recovered 95% of seeded poliovirus compared with recoveries of 36 to 70% for the other methods. For viral enumeration, an expanded roller bottle quantal assay was evaluated using seeded poliovirus. This cytopathic-based method was considerably more sensitive than the standard plaque assay method. The roller bottle system was more economical than the plaque assay for the evaluation of comparable samples. Using roller bottles required less time and manipulation than the plaque procedure and greatly facilitated the examination of large numbers of samples. The combination of the improved filter elution procedure and the roller bottle assay for viral analysis makes large-scale virus studies of groundwater systems practical. This procedure was subsequently field tested during a groundwater study in which large-volume samples (exceeding 800 L) were processed through the filters.

Keywords: FILTER ELUTION; GROUNDWATER; QUANTAL ASSAY; ROLLER BOTTLE ASSAY; VIRAL ASSAY

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2175/106143002X140378

Publication date: 2002-11-01

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  • Water Environment Research® (WER®) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year.

    Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
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