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Development of a Biological Permeable Barrier To Remove 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol from Groundwater Using Immobilized Cells

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This investigation developed and evaluated a new biological permeable barrier media designed to remove 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) in situ from groundwater. There are many potential, expensive barrier media, such as ion-exchange resins and granular activated carbon. Therefore, developing low-cost, yet effective, barrier materials would expand potential applications of permeable barrier technology. A polyvinyl alcohol matrix that immobilized microbial cells (PVA-immobilized cells) was selected as the media for a series of column studies under various operating conditions to simulate a biological trench permeable barrier. Column experiments were designed to account for any significant changes in removal efficiency as a result of hydraulic retention time, applied loading, availability of dissolved oxygen (DO), and nutrient carbon-tonitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio added to groundwater. During 166 days of continuous operation, PVA columns (10- and 20-cm beds) reacted to insufficient DO and high loading rate. The PVA-immobilized cells were found to be a good permeable barrier media with a 99.9 to 91% TCP removal efficiency at loading as great as 300 to 600 mg/L˙d with corresponding hydraulic retention times of 24.5 and 12.3 minutes, respectively. The PVA-immobilized cells remained permeable and structurally sound during 166 days of continuous operation. The cells also tolerated low DO and resumed biological activity to a steady state once they received sufficient DO. Finally, the cells completely dehalogenated TCP without formation of chlorinated intermediates or phenol.


Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: 2000-07-01

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    Water Environment Research� (WER�) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year.

    Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
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