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Operating diagrams for secondary clarification of activated sludge were developed based on the solids flux theory. The diagrams connect the process operational parameters—mixed liquor suspended solids, return activated sludge solids, and recycle ratio—in a unified graphical
form. The diagrams can be used to design and analyze the performance of secondary clarification and to evaluate operating strategies in response to changes in flow rate or solids settleability.
Water Environment Research® (WER®) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year. Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.