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Subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating municipal wastewater for nitrogen transformation and removal

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Research was conducted on pilot-scale, subsurface flow constructed wetland systems treating municipal wastewater. Increasing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 1.7 days to 4.3 days reduced the mean effluent NH4 concentration by 2.7 mg N/L. Hydroperiod manipulation caused a 2.9-mg N/L decrease in effluent NH4. The influent NH4 concentration for the 9-month study period averaged 21 mg N/L. The lowest average effluent NH4 concentration observed in single-stage treatment cells was 13 mg N/L. The mean effluent NH4 concentration from the second-stage cells of two wetland cells in series was 10 mg N/L. During the period from May through September, the second-stage cells produced an effluent NH4 concentration of 6 mg N/L. A variable-order kinetic model for sizing the second-stage cells of a series system yielded a coefficient of determination, r 2 of 0.94 for the summer NH4 removal data. The predicted HRT to reduce NH4 from 20 mg N/L to 5 mg N/L was 3.9 days, if the cells were subjected to cyclic draw and fill.


Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: 1997-11-01

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    Water Environment Research (WER) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year.

    Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
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