Nickel and copper removal at the San Jose/Santa Clara water pollution control plant
Authors: Ekster, Alex; Jenkins, David
Source: Water Environment Research, Volume 68, Number 7, November/December 1996 , pp. 1172-1178(7)
Publisher: Water Environment Federation
Abstract:The fate of particulate and dissolved nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) was determined at various stages in a 7.3 m3/s (167 mgd) tertiary treatment plant consisting of primary sedimentation, off-line primary effluent equalization, first-stage (secondary) activated sludge, second-stage (nitrification) activated sludge, prefilter chloramination, filtration, disinfection and dechlorination. At micrograms/liter levels, particulate Cu and Ni removals were higher than dissolved Cu and Ni removals. Only secondary activated sludge removed the dissolved Cu. No other process removed either dissolved Cu or Ni. The dissolved Cu concentration in the second stage nitrification activated sludge plant effluent was higher than that in the first stage secondary activated sludge plant effluent. Prefilter chloramination solubilized particulate Cu and decreased the overall Cu removal by filtration. The dissolved Cu removed by the activated sludge systems varied seasonally; the higher removals seemed to be associated with increased activated sludge growth.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: November 1, 1996
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