Treatment of 2,4-dinitrotoluene using a two-stage system: Fluidized-bed anaerobic grangular activated carbon reactors and aerobic activated sludge reactors
Continuous-flow anaerobic fluidized-bed granular activated carbon bioreactors were used to treat 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), a compound used in primary propellant production. A synthetic wastewater solution containing 2,4-DNT, ethanol, mineral ether, and a carbonate buffer and another solution containing growth nutrients and vitamins were fed to each of the two bioreactors. The influent ethanol concentrations were varied to determine the effect of ethanol concentration on the extent of 2,4-DNT degradation. The anaerobic bioreactors, when operated under methanogenic conditions with a primary substrate, were able to transform the 2,4-DNT into 2-amino-4-nitrotoluene (2-A-4-NT), 4-amino-2-nitrotoluene (4-A-2-NT), 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT), and trace amounts of toluene. During stable operation, for the range of non-zero influent ethanol concentrations evaluated in this study, the majority of the products were identified as 2,4-DAT. Batch activated sludge reactors were used to examine the fate of 2,4-DAT under aerobic conditions. 2,4-DAT (16 mg/L) were mineralized within 9 hours, indicating that a two-stage system may be an effective 2,4-DNT treatment strategy.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 1995-11-01
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Water Environment Research (WER) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year. Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
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