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Subsurface flow wetlands—A performance evaluation

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This paper evaluates data collected by the authors as well as other individuals and agencies at operational subsurface flow constructed wetlands. The purpose of the evaluation was to identify the influence of hydraulic loading, organic loading, hydraulic residence time (HRT) on removal performance for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), nitrogen and phosphorus. The results indicate that BOD and TSS removal can be very effective at a relatively short HRT and that BOD removal exhibits a linear relationship with organic loading. Effective nitrogen removal requires a longer HRT and appears to be limited by the low oxygen availability in these systems. Phosphorus removal is also somewhat limited and ranges from 30 to 60 percent. Design models for these parameters are available or under development.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 01 March 1995

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  • Water Environment Research (WER) is published monthly, including an annual Literature Review. A subscription to WER includes access to the latest content back to 1992, as well as access to fast track articles. An individual subscription is valid for 12 months from month of purchase.

    Water Environment Research (WER) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year.

    Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
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