Skip to main content

Activated biofilm removal of low concentrations of toluene

Buy Article:

$22.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)


A two-step technique is presented for the biodegradation or transformation of low concentrations of benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylene (BETX) hydrocarbons. Step 1 incorporates the batch growth and attachment of a lush biofilm onto plastic surfaces utilizing a preselected substrate capable of stimulating desired biological activity. Step 2 involves continuous upflow biodegradation of low concentration levels of target organics by the generated biofilm. Step 1-generated biofilms are predicted to deteriorate during protracted time periods, however, extended experimental runs on the order of four months were conducted with continued bioremovals. Target organic removals during Step 2 operations, quantified by a first-order removal constant, are shown to be linked to Step 1 operating methodology.
No Reference information available - sign in for access.
No Citation information available - sign in for access.
No Supplementary Data.
No Article Media
No Metrics

Keywords: biological treatment; biotowers; fixed film; groundwater; remediation; toluene

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 01 November 1994

More about this publication?
  • Water Environment Research (WER) is published monthly, including an annual Literature Review. A subscription to WER includes access to the latest content back to 1992, as well as access to fast track articles. An individual subscription is valid for 12 months from month of purchase.

    Water Environment Research (WER) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year.

    Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • Information for Advertisers
  • WEF Bookstore
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more