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A facultative pond model incorporating biofilm activity

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Most literature on facultative ponds cover only suspended biomass, considering them as the major group of biomass responsible for substrate removal. This study demonstrates the significance of biofilm biomass growing on the side walls and bottom of facultative ponds on substrate utilization. A model for substrate utilization in facultative ponds is proposed which encompasses first-order reactions of both suspended and biofilm biomass. The proposed model was then validated with observed data of two full-scale facultative ponds located in Bangkok, Thailand. Some of the model parameters were determined from the experiments, while others were obtained from the literature. The model was able to predict effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) concentrations of these two ponds reasonably well. A design chart, based on the proposed model, was developed and can be used to aid in pond design or in the estimation of additional attached-growth areas (for example, baffles or other types of attached-growth media) to be installed in the pond water to improve efficiency of the pond performance.

Keywords: BOD removal; biofilm; facultative ponds; substrate utilization; suspended biomass; waste stabilization ponds; wastewater

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: July 1, 1994

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  • Water Environment Research® (WER®) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year.

    Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
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