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Analysis of 10 years of virus monitoring data from Los Angeles County treatment plants meeting California wastewater reclamation criteria

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Six tertiary treatment water reclamation plants were monitored monthly for enteric viruses for 10 years. Secondary treatment removed 99.8% of the detectable viruses. The virus concentrator and assay system detected low levels of native viruses in 74 out of 75 unchlorinated secondary effluent samples. Only l of 590 final effluent samples averaging 1040 L (275 gal) was positive for enteric viruses. These results suggest that the California Title 22 treatment-based water reclamation standards assure reliable production of essentially virus risk-free effluents.

Keywords: coliforms; turbidity; viruses; water reclamation

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: May 1, 1993

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  • Water Environment Research® (WER®) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year.

    Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
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