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Constructed wetland design—the first generation

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A recent study for the U. S. EPA documented more than 150 constructed wetland systems in the United States, treating municipal and industrial wastewaters. During 1990 and 1991, visits were made to more than twenty of these sites for observations and discussions with the designers and operators. This first generation of systems demonstrates a lack of consensus on design procedures, and in many cases little regard for some of the critical factors affecting performance. This paper summarizes the results of the inventory and site visits and provides suggestions for design of the second generation of these systems.

Keywords: design; hydraulics; nitrogen; operation; oxygen source; performance; wetlands

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: September 1, 1992

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  • Water Environment Research® (WER®) publishes peer-reviewed research papers, research notes, state-of-the-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. An annual Literature Review provides a review of published books and articles on water quality topics from the previous year.

    Published as: Sewage Works Journal, 1928 - 1949; Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 1950 - 1959; Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 1959 - Oct 1989; Research Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Nov 1989 - 1991; Water Environment Research, 1992 - present.
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