Skip to main content

Nutrient Removal in High-Rate Oxidation Ponds

Buy Article:

$17.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Or sign up for a free trial


High-rate pond (HRP) processes have evolved from conventional oxidation ponds and could play an important role in the treatment of organic wastewaters in sunbelt-communities requiring tertiary treatment. HRP systems are very efficient in removing biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen, and phosphorus. Mineralized nitrogen is removed by algal uptake of ammonium ion (NH4 +) and out-gassing of ammonia (NH3). High daytime pH generated in the HRP due to algal uptake of bicarbonate shifts the equilibrium in favor of NH3. There are also two mechanisms for phosphorus removal in an HRP; algal uptake and chemical precipitation. Phosphorus uptake by algae is lower than nitrogen uptake because the nitrogen content of algae is approximately ten times more than the phosphorus content, which is approximately one percent of the 100 to 300 mg/L algal dry weights in an HRP. If sewage contains 10 mg/L of phosphorus, algal phosphorus uptake would be only 1 to 3 mg/L. Precipitation of phosphates with polyvalent cations such as calcium and magnesium also occurs in an HRP due to the high pH. This precipitation is sometimes called “auto-flocculation”, which is often incomplete due to insufficient calcium and magnesium concentrations in the wastewater. In the case of Richmond, California, where the studies were conducted, the sewage has low magnesium and very low calcium concentrations. Enhancement of calcium and magnesium deficient auto-flocculation was studied by adding 20 to 80 mg/L of freshly slaked lime to the HRP during the continuous paddle wheel mixing. This simple procedure improved phosphorus, nitrogen and algae removal efficiencies to a level greater than 90%. This paper will describe the mechanisms of nutrient removal in HRPs and present the results of the pilot-scale HRP testing.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2012

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access.
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more