Skip to main content

Development of Sustainable Approaches to Achieving Low Phosphorus Effluents

Buy Article:

$17.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Or sign up for a free trial


In an increasing number of wastewater treatment facilities there is a push towards ever lower effluent phosphorous limits. In order to meet low effluent P concentrations, chemical phosphorus removal is the preferred option for reliable and consistent performance. However, since high molar ratios of Metal/P are required for driving phosphorus to very low levels, large quantities of chemicals are required. These chemicals are costly and have their own environmental impact that is rarely considered when low effluent phosphorous limits are set. Biological phosphorus removal can achieve effluent ortho-P concentrations of less than 0.1 mg/L, but in order to meet very low levels consistently, chemicals are required for standby, for precipitation of residual ortho-phosphorus and for coagulation of the remaining particulate and colloidal phosphorus. Some facilities have investigated the synergy of biological and chemical phosphorus removal, whereby chemicals can be added as a polishing stage or in conjunction with biological phosphorus removal. This paper will discuss proposals and implications of Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) Study: Development of Sustainable Approaches to Achieving Low Phosphorus Effluents which will look at available information and research needs to determine the optimal and synergistic use of a combination of both processes to reduce the chemical cost while still allowing the recovery of phosphorus from the plant.

Keywords: Chemical/biological treatment; low phosphorus

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2011

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access.
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more