Skip to main content

Evaluating Stormwater Impacts and the Firstflush Phenomenon on Selenium Concentrations in a Surface Coal Mine Discharge in West Virginia

The full text article is not available for purchase.

The publisher only permits individual articles to be downloaded by subscribers.

or click here to sign up for a free trial


Selenium in surface water discharges is a concern of the Appalachian surface coal mining industry. Many National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)-permitted outlets in West Virginia must meet stringent water-quality-based effluent limits (WQBELs) for total recoverable selenium: 4.70 micrograms per liter (μg/L) monthly average and 8.20 μg/L daily maximum. This study included a site-specific sampling plan and rigorous field procedures for discrete sampling to clearly show the dilution effect of stormwater on selenium concentrations in reclaimed surface coal mine discharge. The study also showed that the first-flush magnitude depends on site-specific conditions; precipitation volume, intensity, and duration; and pollutant type. Applying the dilution effect and the first-flush phenomenon will help companies develop stormwater management alternatives to achieve consistent compliance with selenium effluent limits. Further understanding and knowledge gained from case studies of stormwater impacts and characterizing selenium at surface coal mine sites will continue to increase over time.

Keywords: Coal Mine; Dilution; First Flush; Selenium; Stormwater

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2011

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access.
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more