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Demonstration of IFAS Technology for Cold Temperature Nitrification in Lagoon WWTFs at Clare and Ludington, Michigan

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The City of Clare pursued an Integrated Fixed-Film Activated Sludge (IFAS) pilot study of the addition of fixed media Webitat™ modules into lagoons with dedicated aeration. The IFAS design was intended to supplement the growth of autotrophic biology for nitrification in order to meet a seasonal effluent ammonia permit limit. The pilot study successfully verified the design nitrification rate of 0.93 pounds of ammonia removed per 1,000 square feet of Webitat media at a minimum wastewater temperature of 9 °C (48 °F) and current average daily flow rate of 0.6 million gallons per day (MGD). The City of Ludington subsequently conducted a similar pilot test of nitrification using IFAS for their lagoon treatment system. The flow rate to the pilot system was doubled three times without any loss of nitrification, verifying the design loading rate.

Keywords: Biofilm; IFAS; Integrated Fixed-film Activated Sludge; Lagoons; nitrification

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2011

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  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

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