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AOP Treatment of Nitrosamines in Recycled Water

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The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California and the Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County (Districts) are collaborating on pilot-scale experiments to investigate technologies for producing high-quality recycled water for indirect potable reuse. The pilot system used non-nitrified secondary effluent from the Districts' Joint Water Pollution Control Plant. For the experiments presented in this paper, this effluent was treated with ultrafiltration (UF), followed by reverse osmosis (RO) and an advanced oxidation process (AOP), which consisted of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in combination with hydrogen peroxide. This paper focuses on characterizing AOP treatment of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), Nnitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), and N-nitrosodipropylamine (NDPA).

Hydrogen peroxide (peroxide) alone provided no removal of NDMA, NDEA, or NDPA. UV alone removed all three compounds, and increasing electrical energy doses (EEDs) increased removal. At all tested UV EEDs, NDMA removal was greater than NDEA removal, which was greater than NDPA removal. The addition of peroxide to UV treatment had no effect on NDMA removal, but increased NDEA and NDPA removal. Treatment goals of 1.2-log NDMA removal and effluent concentrations of 10 ng/L NDMA were achieved by UV alone. The treatment goal of 10 ng/L NDPA could be achieved by UV alone, or by reducing the EED and adding hydrogen peroxide. A combination of hydrogen peroxide and UV was required to reduce NDEA effluent concentrations below the target of 10 ng/L.
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Keywords: AOP; N-nitrosodiethylamine; N-nitrosodimethylamine; N-nitrosodipropylamine; NDEA; NDMA; NDPA UF; RO; UV; advanced oxidation process; hydrogen peroxide; microconstituents; nitrosamines; pilot experiments

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 01 January 2011

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