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State of the Art Concentrate Management Technology Selection Tool and Application of the Tool to a Full-Scale Study

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Reverse osmosis (RO) and electrodialysis reversal (EDR) are widely used technologies for TDS removal from brackish waters. While both processes are highly effective for removing TDS from water, they generate a concentrate stream which requires proper disposal. Disposal of the concentrate streams is economically and environmentally big challenge. The challenge gets even bigger in inland areas where ocean discharge is not possible. There are a number of technologies that can be used for concentrate management. To screen treatment alternatives and select the most cost effective technology alternative, a concentrate management tool (CMT) was developed. The CMT was then applied to a case study to refine and calibrate the model. This paper summarizes the methodology and outcome of this study, which will provide a beneficial overview of concentrate management technologies as well as methods to evaluate these technologies to meet undertaken case study objectives. This paper will provide insight for agencies that are dealing with concentrate disposal issues.

Keywords: RO concentrate; concentrate management; recover; super saturation; volume reduction; zero liquid discharge

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: 2011-01-01

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