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Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

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Publisher: Water Environment Federation

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Energy and Water 2011

Opening General Session

Session 1: Heat Pumps

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Wastewater Heat Extraction for Commercial HVAC Applications: A U.S. Pilot Project
pp. 35-46(12)
Authors: Chen, Jim S.; Boufadel, Michel; Haider, Elinor; Wang, Jimmy; Wang, Anming

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Towards Net Zero – Reducing Community Energy and Water Consumption by 50%
pp. 47-62(16)
Authors: Lindquist, Erik; McCartie, Aaron

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Wastewater Effluent is Hot – Capturing Effluent Heat for Swimming Pools and Snowmelt Systems
pp. 63-71(9)
Authors: Vandenburgh, S.; Schneider, J.; Rynders, T.; Strehler, J.; Hildreth, J.; Parry, D.

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Heat Extraction from Plant Effluent: “Pumped-Up Heat Pumps”
pp. 72-101(30)
Authors: Jacobson, Eron; Vestergaard-Hansen, Bo

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Session 2: Water Supply Issues

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Energy Efficiency in the Water Industry
pp. 152-161(10)
Authors: Lung, Robert Bruce; Gledhil, Jonathan; Graf, Ryan; Filippov, Alexander

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Session 3: Water Startups Saving Energy: Meet the winners from Imagine H2O's Water-Energy Nexus Prize

Innovation in Wastewater
pp. 162-164(3)
Author: Turner, Nate

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Session 4: Pumping and Aeration: Wastewater Treatment Plant's Biggest Energy Uses

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Turning Pump Monitoring Data into an Energy Optimization Tool
pp. 183-201(19)
Authors: Andrews, Nancy; Paske, Sam; Mathews, Dianne; Gehring, Brad

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Case Study: Retrofits Yield Dramatic Energy Savings at California Reclaimed Water Pump Stations
pp. 202-223(22)
Authors: Myers, Edward; Rosenblum, John; Bidwell, John

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Energy Reduction and Nutrient Removal in WWTPs Using Feed-Forward Process Control
pp. 224-236(13)
Authors: Stahl, Tilo; Lee, George; Gray, Matthew; Kestel, Steven

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Fine-Pore Diffuser Studies in BNR Wastewater: Performance Variation and Effects on Energy Footprint
pp. 237-248(12)
Authors: Rosso, Diego; Jiang, Lu-Man; Zhong, Joseph; Coller, Daniel H.; Kim, Andrew; Firouzian, Maani; Jeung, Matthew K.; Anaya-Santiago, Miguel; Gellerman, Keith; Hayden, David M.; Pitt, Paul; Hocking, Charles S.

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Evaluating “Wire to Air” Energy Use of Competing Blower Technologies
pp. 265-275(11)
Authors: Balberg, Andrew; Oleyar, John; Quinton, Brandon

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Roadmap for a Successful Pump Audit and Efficiency Improvement Program
pp. 299-311(13)
Authors: Andrews, Nancy; Jones, Garr; Mathews, Dianne; Gehring, Brad; Beebe, Ray

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Aeration System Design for Energy Savings
pp. 312-324(13)
Authors: Gray, Matthew; Kestel, Steve; Stahl, Tilo

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Session 5: Algae

Wastewater Nutrient Removal and Algal Biomass Production – An Energy Evaluation
pp. 325-346(22)
Authors: Sturma, Belinda S.M.; Lamerb, Stacey L.

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Closing the Water-Energy-Nutrient Loop Using Anaerobic Membrane Biorector Coupled with Algae Photobioreactor
pp. 362-373(12)
Authors: Prieto, Ana L.; Bair, Robert; Cormier, Ivy; Yeh, Daniel H.

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Energy Balance, Utilisation of Nutrients, and Uptake of Metals for Wastewater for Algae to Energy Production: An Algal Bioenergy Technology Assessment
pp. 374-403(30)
Authors: Baxter, Ken; Elsum, G.; Poon, J.; Austin, D.; Mackie, Jay; Byers, B.; Nayar, S.

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Session 6: Biogas Use and Methane Emmission as a Greenhouse Gas (GHG)

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A Systemic Look at Energy Optimization – Balancing Aeration Demands and Digester Gas Utilization to Provide Energy Savings and Carbon Footprint Reduction
pp. 429-442(14)
Authors: Rohrbacher, Joe; Lisk, Bryan; Szoch, Christopher; Whitaker, Jennifer; Wichser, Robert C.; Frederick, Thomas

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Micro-constituents in Digester Gas: Sweating the Small Stuff
pp. 443-457(15)
Authors: Bullard, C. Michael; Lisk, Bryan R.; Hardy, Scott A.

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Blowers, Generators, Digesters and the Energy Puzzle
pp. 458-465(8)
Authors: Cressey, Gary; Hung, John; Solberg, Cary; Dierker, Marty

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Where Should the Biogas Go?
pp. 466-474(9)
Authors: Kunetz, Thomas E.; Auerbach, Eric; McGowan, Stephen

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Quantifying Fugitive Methane Emissions From Gas Flares: WERF'S New Flare Efficiency Estimator
pp. 486-498(13)
Authors: Shah, Anup; Joiner, Matt; Fillmore, Lauren; Checkel, David; Willis, John; Handford, Dan

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Resource Recovery of Restaurant Grease Trap Wastes at Dallas Water Utilities Can Provide Green Electricity
pp. 499-505(7)
Authors: Sober, Jeff; Shimada, Toshio; White, Jesse; Evers, Mark; Wagner, Richard

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From Grease to Green: Two Case Studies of FOG Receiving, Co-Digestion and Combined Heat and Power Generation
pp. 516-532(17)
Authors: Van Horne, Matthew P.; Bruton, Theresa; Hardy, Scott; Bullard, C. Michael; Long, Hunter

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Session 7: Innovative Alternative Energy Systems at Wastewater Treatment Plants

The New Hampshire DES Quantitative Assessment of Energy use for Aeration in Lagoons and Equalization Basins
pp. 533-549(17)
Authors: Hudnell, H. Kenneth; Green, David; Vien, Ron; Butler, Scott; Rahe, Greg; Richards, Bruce A.; Bleth, Joel

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Energy Recovery from Residuals – Comparing Anaerobic Digestion with Combined Heat and Power to Drying Gasification
pp. 550-572(23)
Authors: Abu-Orf, Mohammad; Stinson, Beverly; Davies, Grant; Goss, Terry; Marija, Peric; Amad, Sam; Taylor, Robert; Belschner, Dale; Hartz, Frank; Hentz, Larry

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Biofuels from Wastewater: State of the Industry
pp. 575-587(13)
Authors: Sarmiento, Fernando; Turner, Nate; Wilson, Christopher; Craig, Dustin

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Session 8: Energy Recovery

Using Septage to Accelerate Energy Generation in a Bioreactor Landfill
pp. 588-603(16)
Authors: Zhao, Xianda; Soong, Te-Yang; Subbarayan, Morgan; Williams, Matthew; Larsen, Kevin; Ridgway, James

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Pioneering Energy Resource Recovery on Food Waste at Gills Onions
pp. 610-624(15)
Authors: Malarmagal, Perinpanayagam; Chandrikaa, Balendhran; Andrew, Dale; Michael, Falk; Dave, Reardon

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EBMUD's Journey to Becoming a Net Electricity Producer
pp. 625-633(9)
Authors: Chakrabarti, Alicia R.; Hake, John M.; Gray, Donald M.D.; De Lange, Vincent P.; McCormick, Edward H.

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Session 9: Modeling Systems

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Whole Plant Modeling to Optimize the Biogas Production in Anaerobic Digesters
pp. 655-665(11)
Authors: Dursun, Derya; Jimenez, Jose; Bratby, John

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Membrane Bioreactor Process Modeling and Optimization by Artificial Neural Network and Integrated Bioprocess Models
pp. 666-677(12)
Authors: Chen, JC; Luo, Rongmo; Mu, Shengjing; Zhang, Zhongbo; Andersen, Martin; Jørgensen, Per Elberg

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Optimal Operational Strategies for Energy Savings at a 5 MGD Full Scale Sequencing Batch Reactor Wastewater Treatment Plant
pp. 678-685(8)
Authors: Subramanian, Velmurugan; Clarkson, William W.; Veenstra, John N.

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Collection of Energy Consumption Data from the Operation of Decentralized Wastewater Systems
pp. 686-695(10)
Authors: Toth, Brent; Douglas, Bruce; Braun, David

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Session 10: Energy Efficiency Program Offerings for the Water-Wastewater Industry

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Session 11: Energy Conservation

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Paying for Themselves An Evaluation of Turbo Blower Life-Cycle Costs
pp. 718-727(10)
Authors: Schilling, William; Turriciano, Andrea

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Evaluation of Potential Energy Savings through Aeration Reduction in Aeration Tanks at the Stickney WRP
pp. 728-739(12)
Authors: Moran, Judith; Zhang, Heng; O'Connor, Catherine; Dring, Reed

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Janesville WWTP Upgrade Emphasizes Energy Saving Improvements
pp. 740-745(6)
Authors: Kemp, Jay S.; Lynch, Daniel L.; Wilson, Thomas

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Session 12: Using Automation and Instrumentation to Reduce Energy Consumption

A Change in Control Strategy Reduces Power Consumption at Colorado Springs Utilities
pp. 746-756(11)
Authors: Lagrange, Robert; Hardison, Jay; Hoyt, Bill; Beabout, Jim; Hill, Mark

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Reducing Energy Consumption of UV Disinfection Systems by Measuring %UVT
pp. 765-771(7)
Authors: Dabkowski, Bob; Lunn, Mike; De Kock, Gary; Ingelright, John

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Session 13: Water and Energy from the Energy Utility Perspective

Future Projections of Water Demands for Energy
pp. 772-786(15)
Authors: Macknick, Jordan; Newmark, Robin; Hallett, KC

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Water-Energy Nexus: The Arizona Experience
pp. 787-816(30)
Authors: Newman, David; Eden, Susanna; Lamberton, Melissa; Gelt, Joe

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West-Wide Analysis of the Energy-Water Nexus
pp. 817-827(11)
Authors: Tidwell, Vincent; Moreland, Barbie; Castillo, Cesar; Passell, Howard

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Georgia Comprehensive Statewide Water Management Plan: Forecasting Statewide Energy Sector Water Demands Through 2050
pp. 858-870(13)
Authors: Horrie, Mitch; Davis, William; Mueller, Chuck; Behrend, Glen

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Session 14: Sustainability and GHG Issues

Confronting Climate Change: An Early Analysis of Water and Wastewater Adaptation Costs Through 2050
pp. 871-897(27)
Authors: Freas, Kathy; van der Tak, Laurens; Kepke, Jacqueline; Pasteris, Phillip; Karney, Patrick

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Wastewater Treatment Nutrient Removal and Energy/GHG Nexus
pp. 920-941(22)
Authors: Falk, Michael W.; Reardon, David J.; Neethling, JB; Pramanik, Amit

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Lessons Learned in Sustainability Reporting at the Metropolitan Sewer District of Greater Cincinnati
pp. 958-979(22)
Authors: Ramage, Andrea; Ritter, Lindsay; Lodor, MaryLynn; George, Biju

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Veolia's Water Impact Index, A New Tool for Water Footprinting
pp. 980-983(4)
Authors: Pinero, Edwin; Bayart, Jean-Baptiste; Bénichou, Frank; Grimaud, Julien; Aoustin, Emmanuelle

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Energy Footprint Analysis of Orange County Sanitation District's Operations
pp. 984-991(8)
Authors: Sobhani, Reza; Jiang, Lu-Man; Chau, Allen M.; Brown, Jeff; Torres, Ed; Shao, Y.J.; Rosso, Diego

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Session 15: Pretreatment Methods for Enhancing Anaerobic Digestion

Empirical Modeling for Effects of Emerging Pretreatment Methods on Anaerobic Digestion of Pulp Mill Biosolids
pp. 992-1011(20)
Authors: Mehdizadeh, Neda; Eskicioglu, Cigdem; Milani, Abbas; Saha, Mithun

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The Next Generation of Thermal Hydrolysis: Exelys™ – A Continuous Process for Maximizing Biogas Production
pp. 1012-1025(14)
Authors: Gurieff, Nicholas; Bruus, Jacob; Hoejsgaard, Soeren; Boyd, Jason; Kline, Michele

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Economic Benefits of Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion: A Survey
pp. 1026-1040(15)
Author: Banaszak, James E.

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Session 16: Climate Ready Water Utilities: Helping Build Climate Resilience in the Water Sector

EPA's Climate Ready Water Utility Initiative
pp. 1041-1044(4)
Authors: Whitler, John; Quintanilla, Tony; Ampleman, Matt

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EPA's Climate Resilience Evaluation and Awareness Tool (CREAT)
pp. 1045-1049(5)
Authors: Ampleman, Matt; Whitler, John; Fries, J. Stephen

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Water Utility Response to Climate Change and Engagement with the EPA Climate Ready Water Utility Initiative
pp. 1050-1054(5)
Authors: Quintanilla, Antonio; Kozak, Joseph A.; O'Connell, Susan; O'Connor, Catherine; Whitler, John; Ampleman, Matt

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Session 17: Energy Management Planning for Water/Wastewater Utilities

Case Studies in Utilizing a Decision Support System for Sustainable Energy Management
pp. 1055-1068(14)
Authors: Conrad, Steve A.; Geisenhoff, Jack; Brueck, Terry; Volna, Matt

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Implementing A Sustainable Energy Efficiency Improvement Program at DC Water
pp. 1083-1093(11)
Authors: Atoulikian, Richard; Jolly, Ernest; Wellens, Bert; McGuckin, Robyn; Simon, George

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Energy Management Pays Off: An Overview of Energy Management Planning Successes around the USA
pp. 1115-1117(3)
Authors: Turgeon, Jason; Horne, James; Snow, Madeline

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Session 18: Zero Net Energy Facilities and the Future of Wastewater Treatment

Resource Recovery and Municipal Wastewater Treatment: Modeling of a New Approach
pp. 1135-1159(25)
Authors: Schraa, Oliver; Sutton, Paul M.; Goel, Rajeev; Andres, Hank

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Energy Management – Towards Energy Neutral Wastewater Treatment
pp. 1160-1171(12)
Authors: Fillmore, Lauren; Shaw, Andrew; Stone, Lori; Tarallo, Steve

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A Case Study of a Large Wastewater Treatment Plant Demonstrating an Integrated Approach to Climate Change
pp. 1172-1180(9)
Authors: Chakrabarti, Alicia R.; Hake, John M.; De Lange, Vincent P.; McCormick, Edward H.

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Are They Wastes or Resources the MMSD's Journey Continues
pp. 1181-1190(10)
Authors: Dineen, Dennis; Jensen, Debra; Topczewski, Peter; Zitomer, Daniel; Marten, William; Dierker, Marty

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Achieving Zero Net Energy Utilization at Municipal WWTPs: The Gloversville-Johnstown Joint WWTP Experience
pp. 1191-1200(10)
Authors: Ostapczuk, Robert E.; Bassette, Paul C.; Dassanayake, Chamindra; Smith, James E.; Bevington, George

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The Energy-Neutral and Carbon-Neutral Plant of the Future: The WERF Optimization Program
pp. 1201-1211(11)
Authors: Crawford, George V.; Fillmore, Lauren; Katehis, Dimitri; Sandino, Julian

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Sustainable Wastewater Management: Energy and Nutrient Resource Recovery
pp. 1212-1221(10)
Authors: Whitlock, Drury; Datta, Tania; Erdal, Zeynep; Daigger, Glen

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Using an Integrated Approach to Developing Sustainability Guidelines and Performance Targets for a New College Campus
pp. 1222-1232(11)
Authors: Douglas, Bruce F.; Toth, Brent N.; Barraclough, Cori L.; Lucey, W. Patrick; Bradley, Barbara

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The Short Pipe Path – Safe Water, Energy & Nutrient Recovery
pp. 1233-1241(9)
Author: Ashbolt, Nicholas J.

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Session 19: Developing and Implementing a Joint Agenda for Energy and Water Efficiency

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Session 20: General Sustainability and Energy

Membrane Bioreactors for On-site Wastewater Treatment and Recycling at The Visionaire, NYC
pp. 1245-1258(14)
Authors: Knowles, Paul; Clerico, Edward; Gallagher, Zachary; Shuler, Lauren

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Energy Savings through Performance Contracting at Wastewater Treatment Plants
pp. 1259-1268(10)
Authors: Dickstein, J.; Appleman, T.; Clough, D.; Hanna, M.; Owsenek, B.; Tarallo, S.; Thomson, P.

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Energy Efficiency in the Water Industry
pp. 1287-1296(10)
Authors: Lung, Robert Bruce; Gledhil, Jonathan; Graf, Ryan; Filippov, Alexander

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