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Tractive Force Design—Its Time Has Come

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Solids transport in sewers has generally been addressed in hydraulic design by providing minimum slopes. A more valid basis for determining solids transport capacity is tractive force design. It is based on a theoretically sound analysis of forces needed to move submerged solids. The new edition of the ASCE/WEF Gravity Sanitary Sewer design manual includes tables and equations for incorporating tractive force design methods into pipe sizing and minimum slope determination.

This paper presents the principles of tractive force design, gives instructions on how to use it and provides some examples of situations where tractive force design of gravity sewers can provide better self-cleansing results than traditional conventional methods.

Keywords: Sewers; hydraulic design; solids transport; tractive force; tractive stress; wastewater collection

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2011

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  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

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