Skip to main content

Development of Antimicrobial Surfaces on Silica Media to Enhance Bacteria and Virus Removal and Inactivation During Filtration

Buy Article:

$17.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Or sign up for a free trial


We report on progress made in the development of a novel point-of-use filtration medium coated with a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC). QACs are surfactants that have been studied previously as effective antiseptics and disinfectants against bacteria and viruses. In our study, a silanized QAC, containing a positively charge nitrogen group surrounded by 4 organic substituents, was covalently bonded to silica sand and evaluated as a filtration medium. Columns of the coated silica sand were challenged with several types of microorganisms in varying water quality. These columns were shown to cause up to 6-log removal (99.9999%) of Escherichia coli, 4-log removal (99.99%) of MS2, 1-log removal (90%) of PRD1, and 1.95-log removal (∼99%) of poliovirus under the conditions tested. As expected based on filtration theory, removal increased with an increase in column length and decrease in velocity. Removal decreased over the course of an experiment, however, due to fouling by cell residues. Furthermore, reduced source water quality, represented by the presence of 20 mg/L of natural organic matter (NOM), quickly caused column fouling. A prefilter of iron oxide coated sand or activated carbon placed before the QAC-coated media effectively removed the NOM, allowing column removal of bacteria or viruses to return to that observed in source water without humic acid. Currently, work is in progress to demonstrate evidence of inactivation of bacteria and viruses after exposure to QAC-coated surfaces. Previous results from a live/dead stain have shown E.coli to be membrane permeable following exposure. Ongoing experiments have been planned to determine the long-term effectiveness of a QAC-coated media and investigate the inactivation mechanism of bacteria/viruses.

Keywords: Diarrheal disease; Disinfection; HWTS; antimicrobial-coated surfaces; quaternary ammonium compounds

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: 2011-01-01

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation includes access to most papers presented at the annual WEF Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) and other conferences held since 2000. Subscription access begins 12 months after the event and is valid for 12 months from month of purchase. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is included in Water Environment Federation (WEF) membership.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access. Access begins 12 months after the conference or event
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Learn about the many other WEF member benefits and join today
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more