Treatment Wetlands for TMDL and Numeric Nutrient Criteria Compliance: Technology Capability and Constraints
Abstract:Treatment wetlands remove mass and reduce concentrations of pollutants passively through natural biological, chemical and physical processes. Because they are shallow aquatic systems with extended hydraulic residence times, wetlands can require extensive land areas. Depending upon water quality objectives, treatment wetlands can be designed to emphasize pollutant mass removal, thereby accomplishing mass reduction effectively per unit land area. This feature of treatment wetlands may be useful in meeting regional TMDL goals. Recent emphasis on the need for cost-effective solutions to meet proposed stringent numeric nutrient criteria has led to interest in the treatment ability of constructed wetlands. Selected examples highlight the feasibility of using wetlands to meet numeric nutrient criteria.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: January 1, 2011
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