Skip to main content

Treatment Wetlands for TMDL and Numeric Nutrient Criteria Compliance: Technology Capability and Constraints

The full text article is not available for purchase.

The publisher only permits individual articles to be downloaded by subscribers.

or click here to sign up for a free trial


Treatment wetlands remove mass and reduce concentrations of pollutants passively through natural biological, chemical and physical processes. Because they are shallow aquatic systems with extended hydraulic residence times, wetlands can require extensive land areas. Depending upon water quality objectives, treatment wetlands can be designed to emphasize pollutant mass removal, thereby accomplishing mass reduction effectively per unit land area. This feature of treatment wetlands may be useful in meeting regional TMDL goals. Recent emphasis on the need for cost-effective solutions to meet proposed stringent numeric nutrient criteria has led to interest in the treatment ability of constructed wetlands. Selected examples highlight the feasibility of using wetlands to meet numeric nutrient criteria.

Keywords: TMDL; Treatment wetlands; numeric nutrient criteria

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2011

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access.
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Partial Open Access Content
Partial Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more