Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation of Microconstituents Removal Technologies for Water Reuse Projects
Microconstituents are a diverse group of relatively unmonitored and unregulated chemicals found in consumer and industrial products that have been shown to occur at trace levels in wastewater discharges, ambient receiving waters, and drinking water supplies. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) is one surrogate that can be used for the organic microconstituent compounds. The main objective of this study is to investigate the cost-effectiveness of available TOC removal technologies for small, privately-owned wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The reliabilities of each treatment process are also evaluated by comparison of their ability to comply with regulatory effluent limits. Life-cycle cost analyses over a 20-year planning period were performed to account for capital cost and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs at varying flow rates.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2010-01-01
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