Comparing Membrane Bioreactors and Conventional Activated Sludge Processes for Low Nutrient Limits
This paper reviews recent detailed technical evaluations of advanced wastewater treatment plant expansions in Virginia, North Carolina, and Florida considering both MBR and CAS processes to reach stringent effluent nutrient limits for nitrogen and phosphorus. In each case study, thorough evaluations of both MBR and CAS processes resulted in selecting the CAS option. Although the benefits of an MBR ranked this technology at or near the top of the process alternatives evaluated for each project, the associated capital and life cycle costs of the MBR were typically 10% to 30% higher than the CAS alternatives.
Keywords: Membrane bioreactors; capital costs; conventional activated sludge; effluent nutrient limits; life cycle costs; nutrient removal; operations and maintenance costs; present worth analysis; process evaluation
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2010-01-01
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