Skip to main content

What is Behind Chlorine Residuals? - Two Plants with Two Strategies in the Same City

Buy Article:

$9.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Or sign up for a free trial

Chlorination is the oldest and the most common disinfection method used by wastewater treatment facilities. It has been proven to be an effective disinfection process providing a reliable, high germicidal efficiency. One of the advantages of chlorination is that chlorine residual can be used as a process control indicator. However, chlorine residual is impacted by many factors, such as ammonia nitrogen and organic nitrogen. Different levels of ammonia nitrogen and organic nitrogen existing in the untreated water will significantly influence chlorine residual species. In this paper, the chlorination process at two large municipal nitrification plants was studied through a series of field and bench tests. It was found that a high organic nitrogen content above 2 mg/l could strongly compete with limited available ammonia nitrogen, < 0.5 mg/l, to form organic chloramines which accounted for the major fraction of the total chlorine residual. This made the total residual measurement a poor indicator for the process germicidal efficiency. In this case, oxidation-reduction potential is a good alternative process control parameter. Conversely, a low organic nitrogen level, around 1 mg/l, showed little effect on the chlorine residual species. A great portion of the chlorine residual was monochloramines, dichloramines and free chlorine. Thus, the chlorine residual measurement still can be used as an effective indicator for chlorination process.
No Reference information available - sign in for access.
No Citation information available - sign in for access.
No Supplementary Data.
No Article Media
No Metrics

Keywords: chlorination; disinfection; organic chloramines; organic nitrogen

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2009-01-01

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation includes access to most papers presented at the annual WEF Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) and other conferences held since 2000. Subscription access begins 12 months after the event and is valid for 12 months from month of purchase. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is included in Water Environment Federation (WEF) membership.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access. Access begins 12 months after the conference or event
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Learn about the many other WEF member benefits and join today
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more