Cost-effective Technologies for Small-scale Water Reclamation Plants
The shortage of fresh water is a severe problem for many areas of the world. Water reclamation and reuse provide promising opportunities to ease fresh water shortage problems. However, data and technical information for low-cost treatment technologies for small-scale water reuse projects are often unavailable, especially to communities with limited financial and technical resources in rural areas and in developing countries. In response to this need, this study identifies and evaluates established and innovative technologies that provide treatment of flows of less than one million gallons per day (mgd). A range of conventional treatment processes, innovative treatment processes, and package systems were evaluated as part of this project. The primary value of this work is the extensive cost database, where the cost and operations data from existing small-scale wastewater treatment and water reuse facilities have been gathered and synthesized. From these data, the costs and maintenance issues for the various types of treatment technologies are compared and contrasted.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2009-01-01
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