Skip to main content

Removal Mechanisms of Estrogens in Membrane Bioreactors with Powdered Activated Carbon Dosing

Buy Article:

$17.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Or sign up for a free trial


The fate and behavior of natural and synthetic estrogens in wastewater treatment processes is currently of great concern all over the world. In this study, the removal mechanisms of a natural estrogen, 17β-estradiol (E2), and a synthetic estrogen, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were investigated in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with and without powdered activated carbon (PAC) dosing. The experimental results showed that the average removal rate of E2 and EE2 by the MBR without PAC addition was 89.0% and 70.9%; PAC dosing in the MBR increased the removal rate of E2 and EE2 by 3.4% and 15.8%, respectively. The greater impact of PAC dosing on EE2 removal was due to its greater hydrophobic property. Adsorption played a more important role in the removal mechanisms of EE2 than E2. Biodegradation was the dominant mechanism for the removal of E2 and EE2 in MBRs. Unlike their adsorption behavior, the biodegradation rates of both E2 and EE2 were not significantly different between the MBRs with and without PAC dosing. In addition, PAC dosing could improve the overall performance of MBRs.

Keywords: Membrane bioreactor; endocrine disrupting compounds; estrogen; powdered activated carbon; wastewater treatment

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: 2009-01-01

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation includes access to most papers presented at the annual WEF Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) and other conferences held since 2000. Subscription access begins 12 months after the event and is valid for 12 months from month of purchase. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is included in Water Environment Federation (WEF) membership.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access. Access begins 12 months after the conference or event
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Learn about the many other WEF member benefits and join today
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more