Wastewater Treatment Technologies and Water Quality Required for Irrigation

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The combination of severe water shortages, contamination of water resources, densely populated urban areas and highly intensive irrigated agriculture, makes it essential that Israel put wastewater reuse high on its list of national priorities. National policy calls for the gradual replacement of freshwater allocations to agriculture by treated wastewater (TWW).

Special attention is currently being focused on addressing environmental problems relating to high salinity of municipal sewage in a country in which TWW recovery for agricultural purposes is imperative.

Irrigation water quality is one of the main factors limiting plant growth. TWW generally contains high concentrations of suspended and dissolved solids, both organic and inorganic (e.g., chloride, sodium, boron, heavy metals and nutrients). A proposed regulation should reduce the possibility of damage to crops, soil, water sources and the environment. The management of fresh water supply, including the incorporation of desalinated water, complementary regulations and enforcement activities, are needed for a sustainable use of TWW.

Keywords: Treated wastewater reuse; boron; chloride; dissolved solids; irrigation; nutrients; pollutants

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2175/193864709793957021

Publication date: January 1, 2009

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  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

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