Examining Watershed Control Bacteria Removal Efficiencies in Support of Watershed Plans
Municipal and regional sewer utilities responsible for wastewater and storm water management routinely face costly decisions to comply with requirements to reduce bacteria loads as a result of long-term combined sewer overflow (CSO) plans or Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs). To reduce bacteria loads, solutions for CSOs and storm water discharges have traditionally been limited to expensive gray infrastructure. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that watershed controls such as riparian buffers, constructed wetlands, filter strips, wet detention, and livestock exclusion fencing can reduce bacteria cost-effectively. To use watershed controls for bacteria pollution, an understanding of their potential removal efficiency is required. This work reviews current research in bacteria removal efficiencies for watershed controls. With this review, sewer utilities as well as other water resource managers can more effectively justify and model the use of more cost effective watershed controls as tools for reducing bacteria pollution levels to meet CSO planning goals or TMDLs.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2009-01-01
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