Skip to main content

Theoretical Mass Loading of Human Derived Estrogenic Compounds to Wastewater Collection Systems, its Relation to Population Growth, and Potential Source Control Measures to Reduce Impacts to Aquatic Biota in Receiving Waters

Buy Article:

$17.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Or sign up for a free trial

Abstract:

Endocrine disrupting compounds, including estrogens from human sources, are among the microconstituents of concern that are present in POTW effluent discharges. Estrogen compounds are not consistently removed by conventional secondary treatment processes. Discharges of estrogenic compounds have been observed to cause feminization of fish populations downstream from POTW discharges. Sources of estrogen compounds observed in influent to POTWs include human excretion, from both men and women. Women of child bearing age excrete a higher concentration of estrogens compared to children, post menopausal women and men. The concentration of estrogen compounds in women's urine increases during pregnancy and for post menopausal women using hormone replacement therapy. Source controls such as collection of unused pharmaceutical products typically capture few products with significant amounts of estrogen compounds. Strategies to reduce the impact on fish populations from estrogens may be refined based on a better understanding of the relationship between the sources, POTW tributary population and receiving water characteristics.

A description of the forms of human derived estrogens by age, gender and other status, and a theoretical mass excreted is provided. A representative population characterization will then be defined to relate mass loading to population size. Discussion will be provided with respect to historic population growth and human waste disposal practices with respect to receiving streams. The implications of continued population growth with respect to impacts to aquatic biota caused by mass discharge of estrogenic compounds will also be described. Definition of the potential magnitude of present and future discharges allows definition of technical and policy solutions to mitigate existing and future impacts to the aquatic environment.

Keywords: Estrogen; estradiol; estrone; feminization of fish; loadings; population increases

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2175/193864709793900609

Publication date: 2009-01-01

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation includes access to most papers presented at the annual WEF Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) and other conferences held since 2000. Subscription access begins 12 months after the event and is valid for 12 months from month of purchase. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is included in Water Environment Federation (WEF) membership.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access. Access begins 12 months after the conference or event
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Learn about the many other WEF member benefits and join today
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
X
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more