Skip to main content

Continuous Backwash Filters: An Attractive Technology for Phosphorus Removal and Recovery, and Nitrate Reduction

Buy Article:

$17.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Or sign up for a free trial


Continuous backwash filters (CBFs) have been widely applied for suspended solids and nutrient removal. A more recent development is the use of a reactive media, namely hydrous ferric oxide coated silica sand in CBFs, to achieve effluent total phosphorus (TP) levels less than 0.1 mg/l. The results from case studies involving the use of a commercial embodiment of the reactive filtration technology, demonstrate the ability to achieve an effluent TP level of 10 μg/l in the treatment of municipal wastewater secondary effluent. The reactive filtration technology appears to be well suited as the means to achieve phosphorus removal and recovery in a new flowsheet designed to achieve energy sustainability, and water and nutrient recovery.

A mathematical model was developed for the reactive filtration, phosphorus removal technology. The observed results from case studies were in general agreement with the model predictions. A model was also developed for application of a tertiary treatment CBF system for nitrate removal. Observed results derived from various locations where the denitrification CBF system was in operation generally agreed with the model values.

Keywords: Nutrient removal; continuous backwash filters; mathematical modeling

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: 2009-01-01

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation includes access to most papers presented at the annual WEF Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) and other conferences held since 2000. Subscription access begins 12 months after the event and is valid for 12 months from month of purchase. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is included in Water Environment Federation (WEF) membership.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access. Access begins 12 months after the conference or event
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Learn about the many other WEF member benefits and join today
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more