Sustainability of Full-Scale Nutrient Removal Technologies
Abstract:Sustainability of nutrient removal technologies were investigated in this paper. The ultimate goal of the industry could be set for achieving energy independence at a treatment facility in the future. The state of sustainability are improving rapidly with development of technologies and operational improvements as the focus has been placed on energy and carbon management.
The selection of technologies and their operation do impact the sustainability of the facility in two ways; energy management and carbon management. On energy management, the current energy usage ranged between 600 to 2,100 kwh/million gallons (MG) treated, when operated with internal carbon sources. When carbon was imported however, the energy usage increased by approximately 600 kwh/MG treated or more. Key factors included the flexibility of processes that allow for separate control of mixing and aeration, step feed modes of operation for activated sludge, and automation of controls with on-line sensors and potential side treatment of recycle loads or their equalization. On carbon management, key factors include in-plant generation of volatile fatty acids(VFA), ability to operate the step feed mode of activated sludge and side stream treatment of recycle loads. The carbon generated thus reduced the need to import carbon from external sources up to 35% and thus enhance sustainability in both nitrogen and phosphorus removal at significant savings in energy and costs.
Energy generation on site is a positive measure for reaching sustainability and the biogas from anaerobic digestion is suggested for long term energy independence at a future target of 1000 kwh/MG treated.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2009-01-01
More about this publication?
- Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation includes access to most papers presented at the annual WEF Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) and other conferences held since 2000. Subscription access begins 12 months after the event and is valid for 12 months from month of purchase. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is included in Water Environment Federation (WEF) membership.
WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access. Access begins 12 months after the conference or event
- Subscribe to this Title
- Membership Information
- About WEF Proceedings
- WEFTEC Conference Information
- Learn about the many other WEF member benefits and join today
- Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites