Evaluation of Phosphorus Removal by WWTP Effluent Filtration: 1-STEP© Filter Versus Dual Media Filtration
Abstract:The European Union presented in 2000 the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Within the WFD approach the focus is more and more on ultra low nitrogen (<2.2 mg N-total/L) and phosphorus concentrations (<0.15 mg P-total/L) in waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. With advanced coagulation and rapid filtration of WWTP effluent, ultra low values for phosphorus can be reached, however the characteristics of the effluent as a whole, the presence of other components (the effluent matrix) and the limits of coagulation and filtration technology will determine the achievable concentrations. Knowledge of the phosphorus fractionation and distribution into orthophosphate, metal bound phosphorus, dissolved “organic” phosphorus and particulate “organic” phosphorus is necessary to improve process parameters. Profile measurements in combination with phosphorus distributions show which mechanism is responsible for the phosphorus removal in a filter bed. This paper presents results for the phosphorus removal with dual media filtration (sand + anthracite) and with a “One Step Total Effluent Polishing filter” i.e. 1-STEP© filter (activated carbon). The results show that the dual media filter as well as the 1-STEP© filter can fulfil the target value for total phosphorus in the filtrate of 0.15 mg/L. In both filter concepts the mechanism for the phosphorus removal in the filter bed is filtration.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: January 1, 2009
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