Skip to main content

Disinfection Byproducts Formation in Mammoth Title 22 Recycled Water and their Fate in Landscape Irrigation

Buy Article:

$17.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Or sign up for a free trial


The Mammoth Community Water District (MCWD) operates a 1.5-mgd tertiary wastewater treatment plant without nitrification and disposes the disinfected plant effluent in a 70-acre percolation pond. They intend to produce Title 22 recycled water to irrigate two golf courses, Sierra Star and Snowcreek, as a partial solution to reducing groundwater demands on the local aquifer. However, there are concerns about protecting the basin groundwater quality from disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and other pollutants present in the recycled water. This study was conducted to (1) examine the existing levels of DBPs in the existing effluent and understand the fate of DBPs in the present effluent disposal in the percolation pond, (2) determine DBPs formation from disinfection of recycle water including total trihalomethanes (TTHM) and haloacetic acids (HAA5), and (3) predict, using a mass balance model, the fate and transport of TTHM and HAA5 to groundwater and the impacts on groundwater quality from using recycled water on the golf courses.

In the present treatment plant chlorinated effluent, concentrations of TTHM and HAA5 went from 20 and 58 μg/L, respectively to non-detectable in the groundwater wells around the percolation pond. Available literature suggests that dilution, bioconversion and volatilization are major factors transforming and/or reducing TTHM and HAA5. Bioconversion and dilution were concluded to be the major processes responsible for the reduction of DBPs in the percolation pond system.

Drum-sized batch chlorination tests and bench-scale tests performed to predict the concentration of DBPs in the recycled water showed average TTHM and HAA5 concentrations of 3.1 μg/L and 41.7 μg/L, respectively. These values are significantly lower than the DBPS levels found in the present plant effluent. The higher HAA5 concentrations compared to TTHM indicate that chloramines are preferentially formed when chlorinating un-nitrified effluent, but rapid halogenic reactions forming HAA5 are difficult to control and only slightly reduced. All THM compounds that are in chloroform form are likely to be completely volatilized during spray irrigation. The estimated chloroform concentration in air was calculated to be less than the chronic inhalation Reference Exposure Level (REL) of 300 μg/m3 for chloroform (CalEPA). The mass balance model, along with other study results, led to the conclusion that DBPs released to the golf course with the use of recycled water would be reduced biologically in the vadose zone to non-detectable levels in the groundwater and that recycled water use in the golf courses is not likely to have an adverse effect on basin groundwater resulting from DBP contamination.

Keywords: HAA5; Recycled water; TTHM; disinfection byproducts; golf course; irrigation

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: 2009-01-01

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation includes access to most papers presented at the annual WEF Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) and other conferences held since 2000. Subscription access begins 12 months after the event and is valid for 12 months from month of purchase. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is included in Water Environment Federation (WEF) membership.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access. Access begins 12 months after the conference or event
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Learn about the many other WEF member benefits and join today
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more