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Comparison of Disinfection Technologies for High Quality Reclaimed Water

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The disinfection of reclaimed water for reuse is becoming more common as water suppliers are impacted by drought and high water demands of an ever-increasing population. To protect public health, disinfection technologies for reclaimed water must be capable of meeting or exceeding the reclaimed water quality standards set forth by the respective state in which the project is located. These standards vary by state as well as by the intended end use of the reclaimed water.

In California, Title 22 of the California Code of Regulations (Title 22) governs recycled water treatment and water quality requirements. Specific to virus disinfection, Title 22 requires that recycled water disinfection practices must result in a minimum of 5-log (99.999%) reduction in viruses, with poliovirus being the standard.

A feasibility study of three advanced disinfection technologies that can meet or exceed 5-log reduction of viruses was conducted to determine the most suitable technology to be placed after tertiary membrane filtration at the North San Mateo County Sanitation District Wastewater Treatment Plant in Daly City California for a new 4 mgd recycled water treatment facility. The intended use for the reclaimed water is unrestricted irrigation of current nearby potable water users such as golf courses and other high demand users.

The technologies evaluated included in-vessel ultraviolet light (UV), a proprietary ozone system (HiPOx), and a pasteurization-based process. All of the technologies evaluated have received Title 22 approval for production of recycled water in California. The technologies were evaluated based on treatment efficacy, capital cost, life cycle costs, footprint, and ease of integration into the existing wastewater treatment plant. Conceptual designs were developed and any other identified benefits were also evaluated. From this analysis the most suitable disinfection technology, HiPOx, was selected.
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Keywords: HiPOx; Title 22 unrestricted irrigation; Ultraviolet light; ozone; pasteurization; reclaimed water

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 01 January 2009

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