Skip to main content

Treating Verdigris River Water - Disinfection Strategy for Minimal Disinfection By-Products Formation

Buy Article:

$9.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Or sign up for a free trial

Water demand projections indicate that the City of Broken Arrow (COBA) will need additional water supply from the Verdigris River (VR) to supplement water purchased from the Oklahoma Ordinance Works Authority (OOWA). COBA's original treatment facility is over 40 years old and many of the treatment units are currently failing. Hence, the plant is not capable of consistently producing water in compliance with the latest Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality (ODEQ) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory mandates. VR water is characterized by high levels of organic matter and turbidity, with TOC concentrations ranging from 4.4 to 9.5 mg/L in the past two years and an average of 6.0 mg/L (at plant intake). There are several water utilities that draw water from this source as well. Historical data illustrate that the water plants treating VR water have consistently exceeded disinfection-by-product (DBP) maximum contaminant levels (MCLs).

Since the VR water has been a challenge to treat, a comprehensive treatability study was performed to determine appropriate treatment strategies for upgrading the existing COBA's treatment plant with a 15 MGD facility. Specifically, jar tests and bench-scale analyses were conducted to identify possible pretreatment, clarification, disinfection, and post treatment processes. Following the different pretreatment scenarios, samples were chlorinated or chloraminated for 72 hrs to simulate disinfection within a full-scale distribution system. At 72 hours, the samples were quenched and preserved for DBP analyses. Evaluation indicated that ferric chloride was the most effective coagulant for organics removal. However, DBP analyses indicated that the use of chlorine as primary and secondary disinfectant was not feasible due to the high formation potential of DBPs. Although enhanced coagulation could achieve removal levels for TOC well above the Stage 1 D/DBPR requirements, the remaining organic matter in the water produced levels of DBP above MCLs. Therefore, the use of chloramines as the secondary disinfectant was investigated and demonstrated to significantly lower the DBP formation potential of the finished water.

This paper reviews the protocol and discusses the comprehensive treatability study performed with the VR water to determine the best process alternative to consistently produce treated water in compliance with the latest ODEQ and EPA regulatory mandates. The results of this paper benefits utilities that withdraw water from similar sources as the VR and struggle to meet DBP MCLs while ensuring adequate inactivation of pathogens. Furthermore, this paper presents a comprehensive methodology to assess treatability studies which utilities can apply to optimize their treatment schemes. This methodology emphasizes a holistic evaluation of the treatment efficacy, where pretreatment, clarification, and disinfection options are analyzed all together rather than distinct and separate processes.
No Reference information available - sign in for access.
No Citation information available - sign in for access.
No Supplementary Data.
No Article Media
No Metrics

Keywords: Disinfection; bench scale testing; chloramines; disinfection-by-products

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2009-01-01

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation includes access to most papers presented at the annual WEF Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) and other conferences held since 2000. Subscription access begins 12 months after the event and is valid for 12 months from month of purchase. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is included in Water Environment Federation (WEF) membership.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access. Access begins 12 months after the conference or event
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Learn about the many other WEF member benefits and join today
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more