Skip to main content

Comparison of Multiple Grab and 24-hour Time-composite Samples from Aerated Onsite Sewage Treatment Systems

The full text article is not available for purchase.

The publisher only permits individual articles to be downloaded by subscribers.

or click here to sign up for a free trial


Grab and time-composite sampling are two options to assess performance of onsite sewage treatment systems in the field. We undertook the study described here to assess variability associated with two approaches, multiple grab samples over the course of a 24-hour interval and 24-hour time-composite samples. Effluent from 14 aerated onsite sewage treatment systems was sampled several times in both manners. Total suspended solids (TSS) were the most variable parameter. Average relative deviations between multiple grab samples and the corresponding time-composite sample were similar to average relative deviations between duplicates for TSS (∼35%), Total Nitrogen (TN) (<5%) and Total Phosphorus (TP) (<5%) and somewhat increased for carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand after 5 days (cBOD5). Average relative standard deviations for repeated sampling events for a given system were also similar for both approaches, indicating the feasibility of using grab samples instead of time-composite sampling.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2008

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access.
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more