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Issues related to increased water demand have traditionally been addressed in terms of linear logic – water is delivered to a municipality where part of it is consumed, part of it is lost, and the rest is taken away, out of our sight out of mind. Generally speaking, increases in population and population density in our developing cities over time results in the need to import water supplies from farther distances, and to treat and discharge the resulting effluent causing increasing environmental degradation close to homes. This cycle results in a lack of efficiency and calls for a new management strategy that recognizes the need to appropriately utilize and manage the entire water cycle in a holistic (as opposed to linear) manner.

Total Water Management (TWM) differs from traditional water, wastewater, and water resources planning by addressing multiple objectives while considering a wide range of both conventional and innovative water strategies as the solutions developed consider the entire water cycle. A TWM Resource Plan includes, but is not limited to:

Water reuse (e.g., indirect potable, urban, recreational and agricultural irrigation, environmental restoration),

Conjunctive use of groundwater, surface water, and reclaimed wastewater,

Surface water quality management, such as TMDL issues,

Long-term water demand management options and shorter-term water conservation technologies.

The St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD), JEA and Clay County Utility Authority (CCUA) in Florida are currently involved in critical planning and permitting efforts for integrated management of water supplies and wastewater. This paper presents the process for selecting the projects based on the optimization model framework to develop projects that would promote water reuse, minimize costs for wastewater infrastructure development, augment water supply and help in achieving water quality standards.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2008

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  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

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