Questions and Answers About Integrated Fixed-Film/Activated Sludge (IFAS) in a BNR Pilot Plant

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Integrated Fixed-film/Activated Sludge (IFAS) is an increasingly popular technology that promises to greatly improve the performance of activated sludge wastewater treatment systems. However, many questions remain about the fundamental behaviors and performance of these hybrid systems. Their future development will require a better understanding of the biokinetic behaviors and distribution of specific organisms in the IFAS biofilms, including the effects of media placement, on these parameters. For this reason a team of researchers from Duke University, Entex Technologies Inc, Ashbrook Simon-Hartley, CH2M Hill and Hazen and Sawyer are conducting an in-depth pilot study of IFAS at the South Durham Water Reclamation Facility in North Carolina. This paper provides early data from this study, providing key insights to how such systems should be designed and the expected benefits.


Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: October 1, 2007

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  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

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