SEQUENTIAL CHLORINATION FOR RECLAIMED WATER DISINFECTION
Abstract:The Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County (Districts) operate seven tertiary water reclamation plants (WRPs) with a combined treatment capacity of approximately 200 million gallons per day (MGD). Chloramination is used at these WRPs for effluent disinfection. It was recently discovered that chloramination results in formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a compound with high carcinogenic potency. NDMA can be formed when chloramines react with dimethylamine (DMA) in water. DMA is present in raw sewage and is a component of Mannich polymer that is commonly used as a settling aid in the activated sludge process.
To minimize NDMA formation from chloramination, the Districts developed a disinfection alternative, called “sequential chlorination”. In this chlorination scheme, free chlorine is added to the fully nitrified secondary effluent, and chloramines are then added to the filtered secondary effluent. Both laboratory and full-scale tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of sequential chlorination on disinfection efficacy and formation of disinfection byproducts, especially NDMA and trihalomethanes (THMs).
Results from plant-scale testing at four WRPs indicated that sequential chlorination provided effective disinfection and significantly reduced NDMA formation. The effluent total THM concentrations were moderately higher than the levels when chloramination was practiced, but they were well below the drinking water standard for this parameter. In addition, sequential chlorination did not cause aquatic toxicity and had insignificant cyanide and cyanogen chloride formation.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: January 1, 2007
More about this publication?
- Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed. WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access.
- Subscribe to this Title
- Membership Information
- About WEF Proceedings
- WEFTEC Conference Information
- Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites