IDENTIFICATION OF RESEARCH NEEDS FOR EFFECTIVE LOW COST WASTEWATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES
During the past 15 years, a wide variety of technologies have been developed that can be used for the treatment of wastewater for reuse applications, many of which are identified as low cost technologies relative to more conventional technologies. Low-cost technologies are utilized commonly in areas with low-population density, readily available land area, and in developing countries where high-tech processes are not appropriate. However, regardless of the cost of a particular wastewater treatment technology, it is essential that the effluent quality is protective of public health and in compliance with the established standards. Because meeting more restrictive regulations and standards can have significant cost and energy implications, it is critical that research be conducted on how to enhance and optimize the performance of existing and new low cost treatment technologies. Research needs in the development, implementation and operation of existing and new low cost technologies are examined in light of the technologies needed for (1) the separation of wastewater at the source; (2) the collection, containment, and transport of wastewater; (3) the treatment and reclamation of wastewater; and (4) the reuse or dispersal of treated wastewater.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 01 January 2007
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