Skip to main content


Buy Article:

$17.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Or sign up for a free trial


In Japan, Sewerage Law was amended in 2005 and a modified approach was established by introducing the concept of transferable LRA (Load Reduction Assignment) for nitrogen and phosphorus in the basins of enclosed water bodies. The modified approach is supposed to play a role equivalent to water quality trading which has been adopted successfully in the U.S.. The computer simulation applied to 75 wastewater treatment plants in Tokyo Bay basin has revealed that total cost abatement rate by means of water quality trading throughout the basin is estimated to be 31%. Meanwhile the effluent charge system combined with subsidy is widely employed with great success in European countries. Through simplified mathematical models, the comparative features on equity and reflection of local conditions as well as on the equivalency between the two economic instruments are theoretically discussed. The mathematics for both the effluent charges and water quality trading suggests an equivalent cost-effectiveness in meeting a predetermined target. Water quality trading could be easily designed on the basis of the total sum of permits which is the predetermined target of the policy, while effluent charge system cannot be designed directly from the target. In contrast, effluent charge system is assumed to be superior to water quality trading in terms of equity and the reflection of local conditions.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: 2007-01-01

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access.
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free ContentFree content
  • Partial Free ContentPartial Free content
  • New ContentNew content
  • Open Access ContentOpen access content
  • Partial Open Access ContentPartial Open access content
  • Subscribed ContentSubscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed ContentPartial Subscribed content
  • Free Trial ContentFree trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more